Senior Jeopardy 2020
COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET (S)
NUSAYBAH BINT KA’AB (RA)
- She was one of the 75 people that traveled from Madina to pledge allegiance to the Prophet (pbuh). This historic meeting was known as The Second Pledge of Al-Aqabah.
- Nusayabah was also known as Um Imarah
- She had a husband and two sons, Abdullah and Habeeb
- She was the first woman in Islam to bear arms in defence of Islam and support of the blessed Prophet(pbuh)
- She is most famous for her brave efforts in defending the Prophet (pbuh) in the Battle of Uhud.
- She struck fatal blows to her opponents and suffered many wounds herself.
- She was not only brave on the battlefield but also an advocate for Muslim women. She asked the Prophet(pbuh) why it seemed that the Quran only mentioned men. Soon thereafter Ayat 35 of Surah Al Ahzab was revealed.
RUFAYDA AL ASLAMIYAH (RA)
- Born into Bani Aslam tribe in Medina, she was among first people in Madina to accept Islam and gained fame for her contribution with other Ansar women who welcomed Prophet Muhammad (S) on his arrival to Medina
- She was considered skilled healthcare provider of her time because of her knowledge and experience of medicine, the treatment of wounds and broken bones. She was considered the first female Muslim nurse and first femail surgeon in Islam.
- During the Battle of Trench, Mu’aadh (RA) was struck with a spear in his arm’s vein, which turned into a severe wound. It was at this time when Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Let him stay in Rufaydah’s tent in the Masjid until I soon return.”
- She did not take any consultation or medical fees for treatment of the wounded, seeking only Allah’s reward for her efforts.
- Rufaydah’s tent can be compared to what is known as field hospital in modern military terms.
ABU BAKAR AS SIDDIQ
- Abu Bakar (ra) belonged to Banu taym clan of Qureshi tribe. His father was Uthman, also known as Abu Quhafah, and his mother, Salma, was known as Umm al-Khayr (“mother of goodness”)
- Abu Bakr was a fairly wealthy merchant, and before he embraced Islam, was a respected citizen of Makkah. Like the Prophet, he never worshipped idols, even before Islam; he followed the religion of Abraham, known in Arabia as Hanif.
- He was three years younger than Muhammad (s).He remained the closest Companion of the Prophet all through the Prophet's life.
- Abu Bakr (ra) was among the earliest to accept Islam and at his hands, five of the Ashra Mubashiroon accepted Islam.
- The Prophet bestowed the title al-Siddiq (“the righteous one”) on him for his affimation of the Mi’raj, the Prophet’s night journey and ascension to heaven.
- He accompanied Prophet(s) on the migration to Madinah.
- In the numerous battles which took place during the life of the Prophet(SAW), Abu Bakr was always by his side. Once, he brought all his belongings to the Prophet(SAW), who was raising money for the defense of Madinah. The Prophet(SAW) asked, "Abu Bakr, what did you leave for your family?" The reply came: "God and His Prophet (SAW)."
- In 624, Abu Bakr was involved in the first battle between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca, known as the Battle of Badr, but did not fight, instead acting as one of the guards of Muhammad's tent.
- Before the battle had begun, his son Abdul-Rahman, at that time still non-Muslim and fighting on the side of the Quraysh, came forward and threw down a challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr accepted the challenge but was stopped by Muhammad.
- Abu Bakr's wealth came to the rescue, as he bought the poor helpless slaves from their inhuman masters and set them free, Bilal al-Habashi, the slave of 'Umayyah ibn Khalaf, was among those who were set free by Abu Bakr. Bilal became afterwards the mu'adhin at the Prophet's mosque.
- The most significant contribution of Abu Bakr (ra) to the cause of Islam was the collection and compilation of the verses of the Qur'an as a single book.
- Abu Bakr (ra) passed away at the age of sixty-three, and was buried by the side of the Holy Prophet (peace be on him). His Caliphate had been of twenty-seven months duration.
UMAR IBN AL KHATTAB
- After the death of Abu Bakr (RA), Umar (RA) was chosen to be his successor.
- Umar was a great military leader who adopted the title “Commander of the Faithful”
- Great military leader who adopted the title “Commander of the Faithful.”
- Umar Ibn Al Khattab was born into a respected Quraysh family thirteen years after the birth of Muhammad (peace be on him).
- Umar's personality was dynamic, self-assertive, frank and straight forward. He always spoke whatever was in his mind even if it displeased others.
- Umar (ra) was twenty-seven when the Prophet (peace be on him) started preaching Islam.The ideas Muhammad (SAW) was preaching enraged Umar as much as they did the other notables of Makkah. He was just as bitter against anyone accepting Islam as others among the Quraysh. When a small group of Muslims migrated to Abyssinia, Umar (R.A.) became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) assassinated. On his way to murder Prophet (S.A.W.), Umar met his best friend Nuaim bin Abdullah (R.A.) who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Umar. This friend informed him that Umar's own sister, Fatimah, and her husband Saeed Bin Zayd (ra) had also accepted Islam. Umar (ra) went straight to his sister's house where he found her reading from pages of the Qur'an from Surah Taha. He started quarreling with his brother-in-law. When his sister came to rescue her husband, he also started quarreling with her. Yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Upon hearing these words, Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth. When he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. His sister replied in the negative and said "You are unclean, and no unclean person can touch the Scripture." He insisted, but his sister was not prepared to allow him to touch the pages unless he washed his body. Umar at last gave in. After he cleansed himself and began reading Surah Taha, he became fascinated at what he was reading.He could not stop reading the wonderful verses and immediately decided to accept Islam. He went straight to the house where the Prophet (s) was staying and declared his faith in Islam.
- The Prophet (s) gave him the title 'Al-Faruq' which means the 'Separator of Truth from Falsehood'.
- During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar(ra) was his closest assistant and adviser. When Abu Bakr (ra) died, all the people of Madinah swore allegiance to Umar (ra), and he was proclaimed Caliph.
- In 625, Umar’s daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad (S)
- In 628 Umar witnessed the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
- He was part of the Muslim army that contested the Battle of Tabouk under Muhammad's command and he was reported to have given half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition.
- The most notable feature of Umar's Caliphate was the vast expansion of Islam.
- He insisted that his appointed governors live simple lives, keep no guard at their doors and be accessible to the people at all times, and he himself set the example for them.
- He spent many a watchful night going about the streets of Madinah to see whether anyone needed help or assistance.
- Umar died in the first week of Muharram, 24H, and was buried by the side of the Holy Prophet (peace be on him).
- As a Caliph, Umar (ra) ruled for ten years.
UTHMAN BIN AFFAN
- Uthman (ra) belonged to the Umayyad branch of the Quraysh tribe.
- Before Umar (ra) died the people asked him to nominate his successor. Umar (ra) appointed a committee consisting of six of the ten companions of the Prophet (peace be on him) about whom the Prophet had said, "They are the people of Heaven" ( Ashra Mubasharah) - 'Ali, 'Uthman, 'Abdur-Rahman, Sa'ad, Az-Zubayr and Talhah - to select the next Caliph from among themselves. He also outlined the procedure to be followed if any differences of opinion should arise.
- Abdur-Rahman withdrew his name from being the caliph. He was then authorized by the committee to nominate the Caliph. After two days of discussion among the candidates and after the opinions of the Muslims in Madinah had been ascertained, the choice was finally limited to Uthman and Ali. Abdur-Rahman came to the mosque together with other Muslims, and after a brief speech and questioning of the two men, swore allegiance to Uthman. All those present did the same, and Uthman became the third Caliph of Islam.
- Uthman (ra) and Abu Bakr (ra) were close friends, and it was Abu Bakr (ra) who brought him to Islam when he was thirty-four years of age.
- His relatives subjected him to torture because he had embraced Islam, and he was forced to emigrate to Abyssinia. Some time later he returned to Makkah but soon migrated to Madinah with the other Muslims.
- In Madinah his business began to flourish and he regained his former prosperity. Uthman's generosity had no limits. That is why he came to be known as 'Ghani' meaning 'Generous'.
- Uthman's wife, Ruqayyah ( Prophet saw’s daughter) was seriously ill just before the Battle of Badr and he was excused by the Prophet (peace be on him) from participating in the battle. The illness of Ruqayyah proved fatal, leaving Uthman deeply grieved.
- The Prophet (s) was moved and offered Uthman (ra) the hand of another of his daughters, Umm Kulthum. Because he had the high privilege of having two daughters of the Prophet (s) as wives, Uthman (ra) was known as, ‘The Possessor of the Two Lights'. (Dhu Al Nurayn).
- Uthman's (ra) most notable contribution to Islam was the compilation of a complete and authoritative text of the Qur'an. A large number of copies of this text were made and distributed all over the Muslim world.
- Uthman (ra) ruled for twelve years. The first six years were marked by internal peace and tranquility, but during the second half of his Caliphate a rebellion arose. Uthman (RA) faced internal problems and trouble.
- After a long siege, the rebels broke into Uthman's (ra) house and murdered him.
ALI IBN TALIB
- After Uthman's martyrdom, the office of the Caliphate remained unfilled for two or three days. Many people insisted that Ali should take up the office, but he was embarrassed by the fact that the people who pressed him hardest were the rebels, and he therefore declined at first. When the notable Companions of the Prophet (peace be on him) urged him, however, he finally agreed.
- Ali (R) was born in Makkah to a noble Quraish family. His father Abu Talib was a leader of Quraish and also Prophet's (peace be upon him) uncle.
- Ali was ten years old when he accepted Islam
- Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first cousin of the Prophet (peace be on him). More than that, he had grown up in the Prophet's own household, later married his youngest daughter, Fatimah, and remained in closest association with him for nearly thirty years.
- Ali (ra) fought in all the early battles of Islam with great distinction, particularly in the expedition of Khaybar.
- The Prophet also gave him the title of 'Asadullah' ('Lion of Allah') due to his courage in battles.
- Ali (ra) was also a great scholar of Arabic literature and pioneered in the field of grammar and rhetoric.
- Ali accepted the caliphate very reluctantly. Uthman's murder and the events surrounding it were a symptom, and also became a cause, of civil strife on a large scale. '
- Ali felt that the tragic situation was mainly due to inept governors. He therefore dismissed all the governors who had been appointed by Uthman (ra) and appointed new ones.
- All the governors except Muawiyah, the governor of Syria, submitted to his orders.
- Muawiyah declined to obey until Uthman's blood was avenged.
- The situation in Hijaz (the part of Arabia in which Makkah and Madinah are located) became so troubled that Ali moved his capital to Iraq.
- Muawiyah now openly rebelled against Ali (ra) and a fierce battle was fought between their armies. The main reason of this battle was to take revenge for killing Uthman (RA) and also Muawiyah thought that Ali (RA) was not doing enough to punish the murderers of Uthman (RA). This battle known as BATTLE OF SIFFIN was inconclusive. Ali had to accept the de facto government of Muawiyah in Syria.
- A fanatical group called the Khawarij, consisting of people who had broken away from Ali due to his compromise with Muawiyah, claimed that neither Ali, the Caliph, nor Muawiyah, the ruler of Syria, nor Amr ibn al-'As, the ruler of Egypt, were worthy of rule. ● They vowed to kill all three rulers, and assassins were dispatched in three directions. ● Ibn'e-Muljim, the assassin who was commissioned to kill Ali, accomplished his task. One morning when Ali (ra) was absorbed in prayer in a mosque, Ibn'e-Muljim stabbed him with a poisoned sword.
- With the death of Ali (ra), the first and most notable phase in the history of Muslim people came to an end.
AZ ZUBAYR IBN AL AWWAM
- He was among the five people who had accepted Islam at the hands of Abubakar As Siddiq (ra).
- Zubayr (ra) was around 12 years old when he became a Muslim. At that time, Prophet(s) was preaching Islam privately and thus Zubayr( ra) was one of the youngest attendees of his meetings at Daar Ul Arqam.
- His mother was Safia bint Abdulmuttalib, Prophet(s)’s aunt. Therefore Zubayr and Prophet(s) were first cousins.
- He was persecuted for accepting Islam and tortured by his uncle at a very young age.
- Because of persecution, he was among those who had migrated to Abyssinia and later migrated to Madina. Thus he is among those Muslims who were called Sahib Ul Hijratain.
- He was the first Muslim to unsheathe a sword for the sake of Allah (SWT), in early Makkan time to defend Prophet Muhammad (s).
- In battle of Badar, Zubayr (ra) was one of the two horsemen, in the entire army of the Muslims. He was wearing a yellow turban that day and according to a narration all the angels participating in Badar were wearing yellow turbans as well.
- He is uniquely known for Battle of Khandaq (Trench), where he had volunteered to scout and find out what Banu Quraizah were up to, since they had started showing signs of treason.
- Zubayr (ra) has the honor of being one of the three flag bearers during the conquest of Makkah.
- He played a decisive role in the Battle of Yarmook. This battle opened all of the doors for Byzantine conquests.
- Zubayr (ra) had 11 sons and 9 daughters. He had a philosophy of naming his sons and named all of his sons after various sahabah who were martyrs (shaheed).